The common servo-mechanisms secure the angle of deviation of the swing for 120 degrees (+-60) and even less than that. Deviation of the swing for a large angle is necessary, seeking for managing the undercarriage, for turning the video-camera and in certain other cases. This task can be solved as follows: it is necessary
a) to acquire a special servo-mechanism with deviation of the swing for 180 degrees;
b) to acquire the digital servo-mechanism, which is being programmed, with the possibility of deviation for 180 degrees as well as the programming device, assigned for it;
c) to alter the signal, which is being controlled, with the help of the extra electronic block. The majority of servo-mechanisms can deviate for 180 and even more degrees, but, seeking for this, duration of the controlling electric impulse should be prolonged from the standard interval, equal to 1000-2000 micro-seconds, up to 600-2400 micro-seconds;
d) to install two extra electric resistors in the servo-mechanism.
The order of installation of the extra resistors.
Take the servo-mechanism (either analogous or digital one - it does not matter) and, without connecting it to the receiver, turn the arm manually. It is necessary to get convinced that the necessary magnitude of deviation is mechanically possible. Then remove the lower cover of the servo-mechanism. The electronic scheme inside is connected with the motor and the potentiometer. Three wires come out of the potentiometer: two wires - on each side and one - in the middle. The wires, coming out of the lateral contacts, must be slit. Seeking for rotation of the servo-mechanism, which secures deviation for 120 degrees, for 180 degrees, it is necessary to install the resistors, equal to 25% of resistance of the potentiometer, between the slit ends of the wires. If the magnitude of resistance of the potentiometer is not indicated on it, the magnitude can be measured by connecting the tester to two slit wires. Usually the potentiometers for 5 or 10 kOhms are installed in the servo-mechanisms. The extreme positions of the swing can be regulated by installing the diminutive potentiometers instead of the constant resistors.
The view reflects the standard servo-mechanism out of the set of the equipment SPECTRUM. Resistance of the potentiometer is 5 kOhms; two extra potentiometers (2,5 kOhms each) are installed; the maximal deviation makes approximately 200 degrees (+-100).
If you need the servo-mechanism, rotating around without limitations for 360 degrees, then it is necessary:
a) to pull out or to grind off, or to cut off the ledge, restricting rotation, on the last gear;
b) to disconnect the potentiometer from the mechanism;
c) to switch on the servo-mechanism and to tune the potentiometer in such a way, so that the motor does not rotate in case of the neutral control signal;
d) to assemble the servo-mechanism.
Now the servo-mechanism will rotate around according to the control signal, without returning into the primary position.
The photo reflects the gear with the restrictive ledge, which must be pulled out, and the insert, connecting the mechanism with the potentiometer, which must be removed.
Such a servomechanism is usable for controlling the bank of the aircraft or the inclination of the camera. You'll be able to control the inclination of the camera; the neutral position will conform to the horizon line. In addition, it is possible to control the ailerons of the aircraft and to incline the aircraft to the desired angle in respect of the horizon. If the horizon line is not symmetric, a bank of the aircraft appears. The scheme of the sensor:
IR photocells are fixed on the movable part of the controlled gimbal of the camera or on the opposite ends of the controlled model. A signal of the sensor is applied to an ordinary servomechanism instead of the internal potentiometer. The potentiometer of the servomechanism is connected to the negative terminal, to the reference voltage and has one output (3 conductors); the infrared sensor is connected in the same way.
Such a servomechanism is usable for controlling various mechanizations, such as gear extension or rotation of any element via a supplemental reducer. I used such sensors for leveling-off the video camera in respect of the position of the mechanical gyroscope. A Hall sensor ensures a proportional response to a change of the magnetic field, taking into account the polarity. An absence of magnetic field or the neutral magnetic field (in case of equal distances from the opposite poles) in the transformed servomechanism conforms to the neutral position of the potentiometer in an ordinary servomechanism. The sensor responds to a shift or rotation of the magnet; it is also possible to use two magnets in two extreme positions. The scheme of connection:
The mechanical gyroscope used as a virtual horizon:
The position of the gyroscope is established by magnetic sensors. Inclination of the video camera is preset by inclination of the gyroscope:
Aleksey Zaitsevsky, 2009-2010, http://www.myresearch.company